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Birmingham City FC corporate grouping *

Birmingham (/ˈbɜːrmɪŋəm/) is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, England. It is the largest and most populous British city outside London with 1,101,360 residents (2014 est.), and its population increase of 88,400 residents between the 2001 and 2011 censuses was greater than that of any other British local authority. The city lies within the West Midlands Built-up Area, the third most populous built-up area in the United Kingdom with 2,440,986 residents (2011 census), and its metropolitan area is the United Kingdom's second most populous with 3,701,107 residents (2012 est.) and is also the 9th largest metropolitan area in Europe.
A medium-sized market town during the medieval period, Birmingham grew to international prominence in the 18th century at the heart of the Midlands Enlightenment and subsequent Industrial Revolution, which saw the town at the forefront of worldwide advances in science, technology and economic development, producing a series of innovations that laid many of the foundations of modern industrial society. By 1791 it was being hailed as "the first manufacturing town in the world". Birmingham's distinctive economic profile, with thousands of small workshops practising a wide variety of specialised and highly skilled trades, encouraged exceptional levels of creativity and innovation and provided a diverse and resilient economic base for industrial prosperity that was to last into the final quarter of the 20th century. Perhaps the most important invention in British history, the industrial steam engine, was invented in Birmingham. Its resulting high level of social mobility also fostered a culture of broad-based political radicalism, that under leaders from Thomas Attwood to Joseph Chamberlain was to give it a political influence unparalleled in Britain outside London, and a pivotal role in the development of British democracy. From the summer of 1940 to the spring of 1943, Birmingham was bombed heavily by the German Luftwaffe in what is known as the Birmingham Blitz. The damage done to the city's infrastructure, in addition to a deliberate policy of demolition and new building by planners, led to extensive demolition and redevelopment in subsequent decades.
Today Birmingham's economy is dominated by the service sector. The city is a major international commercial centre, ranked as a beta− world city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network; and an important transport, retail, events and conference hub. Its metropolitan economy is the second largest in the United Kingdom with a GDP of $121.1bn (2014), and its six universities make it the largest centre of higher education in the country outside London. Birmingham's major cultural institutions – including the City of Birmingham Symphony Orchestra, the Birmingham Royal Ballet, the Birmingham Repertory Theatre, the Library of Birmingham and the Barber Institute of Fine Arts – enjoy international reputations, and the city has vibrant and influential grassroots art, music, literary and culinary scenes. Birmingham is the fourth-most visited city in the UK by foreign visitors.
Birmingham's sporting heritage can be felt worldwide, with the concept of the Football League and lawn tennis both originating from the city.
People from Birmingham are called 'Brummies', a term derived from the city's nickname of 'Brum'. This originates from the city's dialect name, Brummagem, which may in turn have been derived from one of the city's earlier names, 'Bromwicham'. There is a distinctive Brummie accent and dialect.
^ "UK Population Estimates". ONS. Retrieved 28 June 2014
^ "2011 Census: Key Statistics for Local Authorities in England and Wales". ONS. Retrieved 25 December 2012
^ a b c "Global city GDP 2014". Brookings Institution. Retrieved 18 November 2014.
^ "Population and Census". Birmingham City Council. 7 July 2014. Retrieved 25 November 2015.
^ "2011 Census: Population and household estimates fact file, unrounded estimates, local authorities in England and Wales (Excel sheet 708Kb)" (xls). Office for National Statistics. 24 September 2012. Retrieved 30 December 2013.
^ "2011 Census - Built-up areas". ONS. Retrieved 4 July 2013.
^ Istrate, Emilia; Nadeau, Carey Anne (November 2012). "Global MetroMonitor". Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
^ Uglow 2011, pp. iv, 860–861; Jones 2008, pp. 14, 19, 71, 82–83, 231–232
^ Hopkins 1989, p. 26
^ Berg 1991, pp. 174, 184; Jacobs, Jane (1969). The economy of cities. New York: Random House. pp. 86–89. OCLC 5585.
^ Ward 2005, jacket; Briggs, Asa (1990) [1965]. Victorian Cities. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. pp. 185; 187–189. ISBN 0-14-013582-0. ; Jenkins, Roy (2004). Twelve cities: a personal memoir. London: Pan Macmillan. pp. 50–51. ISBN 0-330-49333-7. Retrieved 2 October 2011.
^ "Employee jobs (2012)". Nomis – official labour market statistics. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 29 March 2014.
^ "The World According to GaWC 2010". Globalization and World Cities Research Network. Retrieved 18 September 2011.
^ "Table 0 – All students by institution, mode of study, level of study and domicile 2008/09". Higher education Statistics Agency. Retrieved 31 January 2011. ; Aldred, Tom (2009). "University Challenge: Growing the Knowledge Economy in Birmingham" (PDF). London: Centre for Cities. p. 12. Retrieved 11 November 2013.
^ Maddocks, Fiona (6 June 2010). "Andris Nelsons, magician of Birmingham". The Observer (London: Guardian News and Media). Retrieved 31 January 2011. ; Craine, Debra (23 February 2010). "Birmingham Royal Ballet comes of age". The Times (Times Newspapers). Retrieved 31 January 2011. ; "The Barber Institute of Fine Arts". Johansens. Condé Nast. Retrieved 31 January 2011.
^ Price, Matt (2008). "A Hitchhiker' s Guide to the Gallery - Where to see art in Birmingham and the West Midlands" (PDF). London: Arts Co. Retrieved 11 November 2013. ; King, Alison (13 October 2012). "Forget Madchester, it's all about the B-Town scene". The Independent (London: Independent News and Media). Retrieved 11 November 2013. ; Segal, Francesca (3 August 2008). "Why Birmingham rules the literary roost". The Observer (London: Guardian News and Media). Retrieved 11 November 2013. ; Alexander, Lobrano (6 January 2012). "Birmingham, England - Could England's second city be first in food?". New York Times (The New York Times Company). Retrieved 31 December 2013.
^ "Travel Trends, 2014".
^ "Brummagem". Worldwidewords.com. 13 December 2003. Retrieved 7 June 2008.
^ William Hutton (1783). An History of Birmingham. (Source: Wikipedia)

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